Food Safety Good Manufacturing Practices


Food safety has become a public health Issue and every year, millions of people become sick and even many
deaths have been reported by WHO due to the result of eating unsafe food. Food safety can simply be defined
as an assurance that food will not cause harm to any human
being when it is prepared and/or eaten. People always expects their food to be safe for consumption, therefore
if food safety and food hygiene are not taken seriously, it can be a serious health hazard and even lead to death
in many cases. Foodborne illness or food poisoning is the consumption of water or food that has been
contaminated. Foodborne Diseases is caused by pathogenic organisms which eventually lead to either food
intoxication or food infection. And This occurs when a group of persons consume the same contaminated food
or water and then suffer from the same illness or symptoms.
GMPs are guidelines and rules that specify needed applicable standards required for assuring safe production
and hygienic food production. It covers the main aspects of food production, begins with the raw materials
used following process and its conditions till the finished product. GMPs are designed to eliminate decrease and
prevent contamination and cross–contamination of food products, to ensure the safety of humans that
consummating foods.
GMPs has several standards and references there is some generic standards appliable in any system like :
The One of the first published standards that was published by codex Alimentarius commission CAC/RCP 1–
1969, Another GMP standard published by international organization for standardization ISO 22002–1
And some standards are related to specific systems like BRCGS British Retail Consortium Food Safety Scheme
has its own GMPs Standards as in the follows standard although Safe Quality Food (SQF) Food Safety standard –
International Featured Standards (IFS)
all requirements mentioned in all of these standards and other standards includes 7 Main principles /
requirements :
1) Establishment Design and facilities
2) Control of operations
3) Establishment maintenance and sanitation
4) Personal Hygiene
5) Transportation
6) Production information and consumer awareness
7) Training

1) Establishment Design and Facilities :
➢ Establishment & Equipment :
There is a Potential contamination sources that should be considered when choosing the suitable location of
food establishments / facilities to be maintained, in addition to the effectiveness of any control measures that
might be taken in account to protect food. Establishments / facilities should not be located anywhere, and
even after considering such protective measures, there a threat to food safety will remain.
• Establishments should be far from environmentally Contaminated places and areas with industrial activities
which poses a serious threat to Food Safety – areas subjected to flooding – areas has infection of pests –
areas where wastes exist which couldn’t be moved
• Equipment should be installed in a way that Allows adequate maintenance and cleaning and its operation
and good hygiene practices, including monitoring.
➢ Internal structures and fittings :
Structures within food establishments should be soundly built of durable materials and be easy to
maintain, clean and where appropriate, able to be disinfected.
➢ Containers for waste and inedible substances :
Containers for waste, by–products and inedible or dangerous substances, should be specifically identifiable,
suitably constructed and, where appropriate, made of impervious material. Containers used to hold dangerous
substances should be identified and, where appropriate, be lockable to prevent malicious or accidental
contamination of food.
➢ Water supply :
An adequate supply of potable water with suitable facilities for its storage, distribution and temperature control,
should be available whenever necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food.
Non–potable water used in other purposes than food shall have a separate system. Non–potable water systems shall
be identified and shall not connect with, or allow reflux into, potable water systems.
➢ Drainage and waste disposal
Adequate drainage and waste disposal systems in facilities should be available. They should be designed and
constructed so that the risk of contaminating food.
➢ Cleaning :
Adequate facilities, suitably designated, and cleaning programs should be provided for cleaning food facilities,
utensils and equipment and adequate detergents and disinfectants. Such facilities should have an adequate supply
of hot and cold potable water where appropriate.
2) Control of operations :
Processes control
food temperature uncontrol is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness or food spoilage. Such controls include
time and temperature of cooking, cooling, processing, and storage appropriate chilling. Systems should be in place to
ensure that temperature is controlled effectively where it is critical to the safety and suitability of food. steps which
contribute to food hygiene may include, for example:
• chilling

• thermal processing
• irradiation
• drying
• chemical preservation
• vacuum or modified atmospheric packaging
Systems should be in place to prevent Pathogens contamination prevention and prevents any access of foreign matters to
food materials, either by direct contact or by food handlers, contact surfaces or the air. Raw, and unprocessed food should
be effectively separated, In manufacturing and processing, suitable detection or screening devices should be used where
either physically or by time, from ready–to–eat foods, with effective intermediate cleaning and
where appropriate disinfection.
Physical and chemical contamination
Systems should be in place to prevent contamination of foods by foreign bodies such as glass or
metal shards from machinery, dust, harmful fumes and unwanted chemicals. In manufacturing
and processing, suitable detection or screening devices should be used where necessary.
Managers should ensure effective procedures are in place to deal with any food safety hazard and
to enable the complete, rapid recall of any implicated lot of the finished food from the market.
Where a product has been withdrawn because of an immediate health hazard, other products
which are produced under similar conditions, and which may present a similar hazard to public
health, should be evaluated for safety and may need to be withdrawn. The need for public
warnings should be considered
Establishments and equipment should be kept in an appropriate state of repair and condition to:
• facilitate all sanitation procedures;
• function as intended, particularly at critical steps (see paragraph 5.1);
• prevent contamination of food, e.g., from metal shards, flaking plaster, debris, and chemicals.
Establishments and equipment should be kept in an appropriate state of repair and condition to:
• facilitate all sanitation procedures;
• function as intended, particularly at critical steps (see paragraph 5.1);
• prevent contamination of food, e.g., from metal shards, flaking plaster, debris and chemicals.
Cleaning should remove food residues and dirt which may be a source of contamination. The necessary cleaning methods
and materials will depend on the nature of the food business. Disinfection may be necessary after cleaning.
Pests pose a major threat to the safety and suitability of food. Pest infestations can occur where there are breeding sites and
a supply of food. Good hygiene practices should be employed to avoid creating an environment conducive to pests. Good
sanitation, inspection of incoming materials and good monitoring can minimize the likelihood of infestation and thereby
limit the need for pesticides.

People known, or suspected, to be suffering from, or to be a carrier of a disease or illness likely to be transmitted through
food, should not be allowed to enter any food handling area if there is a likelihood of their contaminating food. Any person
so affected should immediately report illness or symptoms of illness to the management.
Medical examination of a food handler should be carried out if clinically or epidemiologically indicated.
[ jaundice; –diarrhea; – vomiting; – fever; – sore throat with fever; – visibly infected skin lesions (boils, cuts, etc.);
– discharges from the ear, eye, or nose.]
Food must be adequately protected during transport. The type of conveyances or containers required depends on the
nature of the food and the conditions under which it must be transported. Where necessary, conveyances and bulk
containers should be designed and constructed so that they: do not contaminate foods or packaging – can be effectively
cleaned and, where necessary, disinfected
Lot identification is essential in recall process and also supports effective stock rotation. Each food material (raw or
processed) should be marked to identify the producer and the lot, all food products should have adequate
information to enable handling, display, store and prepare and use the product safely and correctly.
7) CONSUMER Awareness :
Food labels should have adequate information about handling the food product in a way that don’t cause harm to
the consumer using specific temp in preparing … etc.
Food hygiene training is critically important. All personnel should be trained well and aware of their roles and
responsibilities in maintain food safety level and far from contamination or deterioration. Food handlers should
have the necessary knowledge and skills to enable them to handle food hygienically. Those who handle strong
cleaning chemicals or other potentially hazardous chemicals should be instructed in safe handling techniques.

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